What is genomics?
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism's complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes. Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. Knowledge of the DNA sequence has become an important part of biological research but it is also of vital importance in other research disciplines including medicine, biotechnology, forensic, etc. GenePrint LifeSciences is proud to introduce genomics services tailored to your needs.
History of genomics dates back to the 1970s when the scientists determined the DNA sequence of simple organisms. The greatest breakthrough in the field of genomics occurred in the mid-1990s when the scientists sequenced the entire genome of Haemophilus influenzae, a free-living organism which, however, does not cause influenza. The bacterium was thought to be the cause of flu until 1933 when it was proven that influenza is caused by a virus. In 2001, the scientists sequenced most of the human genome. Since then, genomes are being sequenced with relative ease. By the end of 2011, scientists sequenced genomes of over 2,700 viruses, more than 1,200 bacteria and archaea and 36 eukaryotes about 50 percent of which are fungi. GenePrint LifeSciences feels proud to be your partner in the sequencing of new genomes and in re-sequencing of known genomes.
Scientists get a number of highly useful information from sequenced DNA of organisms. But what is most important of all, they allow the scientists to determine the relationships between the genes and different sections of DNA which in turn allows them to determine which areas could offer benefits to science as well as make the knowledge useful for medical applications. Genomic research projects over the last few decades gave rise to several research areas in the study of genomes. The main genomics research areas include:
Human genomics: Like its name suggests, human genomics is focused on studying the human genome sequence. Human DNA was sequenced by the Human Genome Project, an international scientific research project in 2001 but the human genome sequence was proclaimed completed only in 2007.
Bacteriophage genomics: It refers to the study of bacteriophage genomes or genomics of viruses which infect bacteria and are considered as a possible alternative for treatment of illnesses that are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Metagenomics: It is a study of metagenomes or genetic material which is obtained from environmental samples rather than from cultivated cultures. Metagenomics has revolutionized the understanding of microbial world and shown that the traditional cultivation techniques have missed the majority of microbial diversity.
Cyanobacteria genomics: This field of genomic research is concentrated on study of cyanobacteria, a phylum of bacteria which get energy through photosynthesis.
Pharmacogenomics: This branch of genomics studies the impact of genetic variation on a drug’s efficacy and toxicity, and plays an important role in optimization of drug therapy.
Epigenomics: Refers to sequencing the epigenome, which is the epigenetic modifications on the base genome of an individual. Epigenetic modifications regulate gene expression and functions; therefore, studying epigeome has important role in understanding how biological systems are regulated.
GenePrint LifeSciences caters to genomics, epigenomics, metageomics, pharmacogenomics and other rapidly growing areas of genomics.